Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end stage renal failure. It has demonstrated, by large, to improve the patients QoL, and decrease treatment costs. However, these patients have a persistent risk of graft rejection due to immune-mediated kidney injury.

The donor´s graft is from the same species but genetically different from the recipient. The immune system of the recipient will inevitably recognize donor-specific antigenic (DSA) determinants (i.e., alloantigens) expressed by the graft, mainly from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The alloimmune response that is developed against donor-specific HLA molecules of the graft is responsible for tissue damages which lead to the failure of the transplanted organ, a process named rejection.

To limit the risk of rejection, transplanted kidney patients require long term treatment with different immunosuppressive (IMSs) drugs and doses.  Currently, IMSs are prescribed empirically and based on standard clinical guidelines, but there is a lack of biomarkers to help health professionals to stablish a personalized therapeutic immunosuppression plan for each patient.

The IMMUNOBIOGRAM® is a valuable tool that help physicians to individualize immunosuppression based on the patients´ response to immunosuppressive treatment (IMSs).